Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection process is defined as the process through which the best individuals are selected. Among a pool of applicants for particular positions of job. Mostly managers consider the selection process as one of their critical decision functions in the organization.
In the selection process, the managers actually try to match the knowledge, skills. Along with abilities of the applicants with the requirements of the jobs. There is no single selection process that can be considered as the standard one for all the organizations. Rather the steps and procedure of the selection process vary from organization to organization.
Factors Affecting Recruitment and Selection Process
Recruitment and Selection Process is supported by a standard and permanent process of screening. However, in some cases the screening process cannot simplify the selection process. Since there are certainly other factors that influence the selection process. These factors are the environmental factors and are as follows.
- Legal Considerations
- Speed of Decision Making
- Organizational Hierarchy
- Applicant Pool
- Types of Organization
- Probationary Period
- Selection Criteria
Human Resource Management is influenced by court decisions, executive orders and legislation. The management of the organization should use legally defensive selection tools in the selection process.
Speed of Decision Making
The recruitment and selection process is directly influenced by the available time to make the decision of selection. In general cases, the selection process is followed by the specified policies. Although also procedures to protect the organization from legal issues.
However, in certain situations, there is much pressure on the organization. Actually that leads the management to follow the exceptional selection process.
The recruitment and selection process varies according to the filling posts of different levels of hierarchy in the organizational structure.
The recruitment and selection process is also influenced by the number of applicants for a particular job. In the case of many qualified applicants for a particular post, the selection process becomes selective. For this purpose, the selection ratio is ascertained by comparing the number of selected applicants to the number of applicants in a pool.
Type of Organization
The type of organization like government organization, private or non-profit organization, etc. Also affects the selection process for the hiring individuals.
A certain organization adopts the procedure of the probation period in the selection process. To check the potential of the individual on the basis of his performance. So this may take the form of either validity check on the selection process. Nor as a substitute for some steps of the selection process.
In most cases, the applicants are selected on the basis of the following factors or criteria.
- Skills and Abilities
- Personal Characteristics
In a way the applicant that best fits the above criterion is selected rather than the one. Actually that has extraordinary skills or over as well as under-qualified. Since in such case the later selected person would not properly adjust in the organization.
Steps Involved in Process
In typical cases, the selection process starts with the preliminary interview. After which the applications for the employment are filled by the candidates. The candidates pass through a number of selection tests. Also interviews of employment and background check and references.
The candidates that are successful in all the previous steps get a physical examination test by the company. Also if the results are satisfactory, they are selected. There are several internal and external forces. In fact that influence the selection process. Therefore the managers must consider these factors before making a final decision of selection.
Following are the standardized steps of the selection process. However, some organizations may alter some of these steps in their selection process.
- Initial Screening
- Application blank
- Pre-employment Testing
- Background Checks
- Conditional Job Offer
- Drug Test/Medical Exam
- Final Selection Decision
Now each step is discussed one by one.
Generally, the Selection and the Recruitment Process starts with the initial screening of applicants. So that the unqualified ones are dropped out at the initial stage. Initial screening is helpful to save the time, cost. Along with effort of the selection committee in the following steps of the selection process.
In this step, certain general questions are asked from the applicants. There are chances that some applicants would be unqualified for the job. However some of them would be qualified. So the main purpose of screening applicants is to reduce the number of applicants available in the selection process.
Sources used in the Screening Effort
The main source of initial screening is the curriculum vitae of the applicant along with the job application. So the following information is included in the above-mentioned documents.
- Education and Employment History
- Evaluation of character
- Evaluation of job performance
Screening interviews are employed to
- To verify the accuracy and validity of the information given in the curriculum vitae of the applicant.
- The duration of these interviews is quite short.
Advantages of Successful Screening
When the initial screening step becomes successful, the removing applicants do not proceed. Particularly to the next step of the selection process. Since they do not meet the minimum requirements. Secondly, the selection costs of the organization are much reduced through proper screening of the applicants.
The person’s application for employment is formally recorded in the shape of the application blank. In the next step of the selection process, an application form for employment is completed by the prospective applicant. Therefore the information contained in the application blank differs from one organization to another organization. Although in job posts, it may vary even within the same organization.
However generally, the informational needs and the requirements of EEO are covered in the application blank. The historical data from the candidate can be quickly collected through the application blanks. So that further verification about the accuracy of the data is carried out.
The physical and mental abilities, knowledge, skills, personal characteristics. Also other aspects of behavior can be effectively measured through the pre-employment tests. For this purpose, there are hundreds of tests that can measure the different aspects of human behavior.
With the passage of time, the application of the pre-employment test is growing at a fast rate in the selection process. Since they can explain the qualities and skills of the applicant clearly. These tests are more used in the large and public sector organizations.
The advantage of the application of tests in the selection process is that it can ensure the potential. As well as qualified candidate selection from a pool of applicants for a job.
Characteristics of Well Designed Test
A well-designed selection test has the following characteristics.
Kinds of Pre-employment Tests
As individuals vary on the basis of cognitive abilities, job knowledge, vocational interests. Along with psycho-motor abilities and personality, etc. So, all these factors are measured through a set of different pre-employment tests which are as follows.
Cognitive Aptitude tests
In this test, the ability to learn and perform a job by an individual is judged. So the abilities related to the job are as follows.
- Perceptual Speed
Psychomotor Abilities Test
In this test, the coordination, strength and dexterity of an individual is judged. Other abilities related to routine office jobs and production jobs can also be measured through these tests.
Job Knowledge Tests
This test is used to measure the knowledge of the person about the duties of a particular job.
Work Sample Tests
A set of tasks that represent a job are identified in this test. Through which the productivity level, ability to face adverse conditions by the applicants are judged.
Vocational Interest Test
This test identifies the occupations that are preferred by the candidate. That can provide him maximum satisfaction.
These tests are not considered to be so reliable & valid as compared to other pre-employment tests. Since these tests require an external psychologist who interprets the results of the tests subjectively.
Drug & Alcohol Tests
For the security, productivity and safety of the workplace drug testing programs are used as pre-employment tests.
In the interview, the interviewer and applicant exchange information in order to achieve a goal through conversation. So the employment interviews are conducted during the selection process through proper planning. The pleasant location of the interviewing place is selected and the interviewer has a good personality with empathy. Although also has an ability to communicate and listen effectively. A job profile must be prepared on the basis of the job description before conducting the interview.
Contents of the Interview
Although the contents of the employment interview vary from one organization to another. Also according to the nature of the job but still following are the essential contents of the interview.
- Occupational Experience
- Academic Achievement
- Interpersonal Skills
- Personal Qualities
- Organizational Fit
Types of Interviews
The interviews are generally categorized into the following three types.
In unstructured interviews, open-ended questions are asked from the applicant in order to perform probing. It is generally non-directive in nature and the applicant is encouraged to give lengthy answers.
In a structured interview, a list of job-related questions associated with a particular job is asked. Particularly from each applicant in a consistent manner. It is a directive or pattern in nature and includes the following four kinds of questions.
- Situational Questions
- Job Knowledge Questions
- Job-sample simulation Questions
- Worker Requirement Questions
It is a special kind of structured interview in which specially designed questions. That are asked from the applicant to probe his past behavior in specific situations. It does not include the self-evaluative and hypothetical questions. Also inhibits to judge the personality of the applicant. The candidates are rated on the basis of their responses in the light of the bench-marked answer of successful employees.
Methods of Interviewing
The following are the main ways of conducting interviews.
- One-on-One Interview
- Group Interview
- Board Interview
- Stress Interview
The accuracy of the application form of the candidate is verified through references and former employer. The educational, criminal record and legal status to work are verified. Personal references of applicants are contacted to confirm the validity. Along with accuracy of the provided information.
The effort is made to know the past behavior of the employees. So that the future behavior can be predicted from it. Background checks assist the selection committee in dropping the applicants. In fact that have past insubordination issues, attendance problems, theft, or special behavioral problems. The level of responsibility for the new job directs the intensity of the background investigation.
Conditional Job Offer
After going through all the previous steps of the selection process. There comes the most important step of the selection process in which the decision of hiring is made. So the applicant that best meets the requirements of the job is selected. At the start, a conditional job letter is issued which must be followed by a medical exam.
When the conditional job letter is issued the next step of the selection process starts. In which the physical/medical examination of the selected candidate is conducted. The medical exam of the candidate is essential to check whether he takes the drugs or not. If he passes the exam, he would be finally selected for the job.
Final Selection Decision
After passing the medical exam by the candidate, the final offer for the job is made. Basically to the candidate by the relative department.
Hello everyone! This is Richard Daniels, a full-time passionate researcher & blogger. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Economics. He loves to write about economics, e-commerce, and business-related topics for students to assist them in their studies. That's the sole purpose of Business Study Notes.
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