The job analysis is a process through which jobs are studied understood. It is an important part of the program of human resource. The information on the following areas can be acquired through this process.
- The important activities & duties required.
- The specification of condition for the job.
In this way the following concepts needed to understand.
Job is a combination of tasks that should be completed in organization to accomplishment of its objectives.
A person performs the specified tasks & responsibilities and therefore there must be some position for every person in the organization.
Task is a clear, identifiable activity of work that consists of motions.
It is a wider portion that consists of a group of tasks which are completed by a person.
Responsibility is the obligation to complete certain duties & tasks.
In the light of above information job analysis is a systematic process in which all the information associated with any job is collected & judged. It provides the comprehension of the tasks & duties linked with any job & the types of people suitable for the job. The job description & job specification are prepared by the analysis, which helps the processes of recruitment, selection, training, compensation & performance appraisals etc.
Types of Job Analysis information
For the success of this process, considerable information is required which includes knowledge about the tools, machines, work aids & other equipment’s that are used to perform job. Analysis also points out the standards that should be developed for a job.
Following are some of the questions that should be answered through this process.
- What kinds of tasks are completed by the employees in physical & mental terms?
- When the job should be completed?
- How the employee should perform the job?
- Why the job should perform?
- What are the required qualifications to accomplish the job?
Steps in Job Analysis
Following are the steps taken during the process of job analysis.
01- The usage of information is ascertained that would help in understanding the type of information that should be gathered. For this purpose of suitable data collection, Position analysis questionnaires & Interviewing are good examples.
02- The background of relevant information is reviewed like job descriptions, process charts, organization charts.
03- The representative positions are selected to make analysis because there are too many similar positions that may be considered but it is not essential to analyze all of these similar positions.
04-The data is collected for the analysis of the job on the following aspects.
- Job activities
- Employee behaviors
- Working conditions
- Human abilities & traits
05- The accuracy and reliability of the collected data is verified by reviewing it completely & comparing it with the job incumbents.
06-In the last step of analysis, job description & job specification are prepared for the new job.
When Job Analysis is Conducted
Analysis is performed when
- When the organization is established.
- When new jobs are produced.
Uses of Analysis Information:
- Recruitment & Selection
Job analysis facilitates the job description & job specification, which is helpful for the management in deciding the kinds of people to be hire.
Analysis provides the guidance in valuing any new job and therefore the resulting compensation for the job is also determined.
- Performance Appraisals
The specific activities of a job are ascertained by the management through job analysis. Analysis also provides the standards of performance for employees.
Job analysis provides the job description that shows the required skills & knowledge for performing the specified activities of the job. This helps the managers to know the training requirements of the new employees.
- Discovering Unassigned Duties
The unassigned duties are revealed from the analysis performed.
- EEO Compliance
Job analysis serves as the crucial step for validating all the important human resource activities according to the standards.
Why Job Analysis is conducted
There are many reasons for conducting a systematic job analysis & these are as follow.
The staffing is not performed accurately if the recruiting officer does not understand the required qualifications for a job.
- Training & Development
The need for training & development of new selecting employees is determined by knowing the required skills, knowledge & experience for a job. In this way the training & development is given to the new employees at start to make them potential workers.
- Compensation & Benefits
The management must know the worth of the job in terms of dollar value before the recruitment & selection process. The worth of any job is directly related with the duties & responsibilities associated with that job.
- Safety & Health
The considerations of safety & health of employees is also derived from the information of analysis process.
- Employee & Labor Relations
The relations with the employees of the organizations are influenced through the information collected from the analysis and this would help the management in various decisions of the HR.
- Legal Considerations
The legal aspects of the jobs & policies are better covered by conducting proper analysis.
Job Analysis Outcomes
Probably the outcomes of analysis seems in the shape Job Description, Job Specification, Job Evaluation, which actually indicates the job analysis process.