Scrum methodology is the most widely used methodology among existing agile methods. The term scrum is meant for the first time in 1986 in a publication by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, which describes a new and faster and more flexible approach to the development of new products. They compare this new method to rugby, the basic principle being that the team is moving forward together and are always ready to reorient the project as it progresses, such as a rugby ball that has to pass from hand to hand until they mark a test. This post is all about Scrum methodology.
Principles of Scrum Methodology
Obviously, the Scrum approach follows the principles of the agile methodology, that is to say the involvement and active participation of the client throughout the project. Considered a framework (framework English) project management, Scrum consists of several key elements:
- Of roles
- Of events
- Of artifacts
- The rules
It is an empirical (i.e. experience-based), dynamic and participatory approach to project management. In rugby, the melee is an indispensable phase because it allows the game to re-start on other bases. The same goes for Scrum: the team meets daily at a synchronization meeting, called daily scrum, to monitor the progress of the project.
Distribution of Roles
The Scrum team is self-organized and multidisciplinary, that is, it chooses
The best way to carry out his / her work and that he / she possesses all the skills necessary to accomplish the project. The flexibility, creativity and productivity of the team are thus optimized. The Scrum team consists of:
- A Scrum Master
- A Product Owner (or owner of the product in French)
- A development team
The Scrum Master is responsible for understanding, adhering to and implementing the Scrum method, which he perfectly understands. It ensures that the principles and values of the methodology are respected. It is a facilitator who helps to improve communication within the team and seeks to maximize the productivity and know-how of the team. He is considered the coach of the development team.
The Product Owner carries the vision of the product to be realized. It works in interaction with the development team that must follow its instructions. It establishes the priority of the functionalities to be developed or corrected, and validates the completed functionalities. He is responsible for the management of the product backlog.
The development team is responsible for transforming the needs defined by the Product Owner into usable functionalities. It is multidisciplinary and has all the necessary skills to carry out the project without resorting to external services. Its members include an architect, a developer, a tester, and so on. The ideal size of the development team is 3 to 9 people. There is no notion of hierarchy, all decisions are taken together.
The Different Events
The life of a Scrum project is punctuated by a set of meetings defined precisely and limited in time.
- The Sprint
A Sprint is an iteration. It is a period of 2 to 4 weeks maximum during which a finished and usable version of the product is realized. A new sprint starts at the end of the previous one. Each sprint has a goal and a list of features to achieve.
- Planning a Sprint
The tasks to be accomplished during the Sprint are determined by the entire Scrum team at the Sprint planning meeting. The duration of this meeting is limited to 8 hours for Sprints of one month. This meeting allows the team to establish the elements it will process during this Sprint and how it will proceed.
- Sprint Review
It is the balance sheet of the Sprint realized. Once the Sprint is over, the Scrum team and stakeholders meet to validate what has been accomplished during the Sprint. This meeting lasts 4 hours maximum.
- Sprint Retrospective
This meeting is internal to the Scrum team and lasts 3 hours for a one-month Sprint. The goal is to adapt to the changes that can occur and the continuous improvement of the realization process. The team reviews the completed Sprint to determine what worked and what needs to be improved.
- Daily Melee
This 15-minute daily meeting is very important. She is standing up (hence her English name “stand-up meeting”) to avoid dragging on. The aim is to take stock of the daily progress of the Sprint. It allows the team to synchronize its activities and make a plan for the next 24 hours. The melee takes place at the same time and place every day. Each member of the development team must answer these three questions:
- What did they do the day before?
- What will they accomplish today?
- What are the obstacles that delay them?
The product backlog (or product log)
This is a hierarchical list of the customer’s initial requirements for the product to be produced. This document evolves constantly during the project, according to the needs of the client. The product owner is responsible for product backlog.
The Sprint backlog (or Sprint notebook)
This is the detailed plan for achieving the Sprint goal, defined at the Sprint planning meeting. The Sprint backlog is updated regularly by the team to get a clear picture of the Sprint’s progress.
This is all completed elements of the product backlog for the current Sprint, as well as those of the previous Sprints. The increment must work and be usable.
The Burndown Chart (or progress graph)
This simple graphic shows the state of progress of the Sprint backlog tasks. This is the plot of the remaining workload (usually expressed in hours) as a function of time (in days). The Burndown Chart is updated daily by the Scrum Master after the daily scrum.
Scrum is the most proven and proven agile method. Each of its elements (roles, events, artifacts) is immutable and must be scrupulously respected. On the other hand, this approach is not intended for all types of projects. For example, it will fit perfectly for the next fashionable Smartphone, but will not be suitable for building a bridge. Finally, be aware that this is an easy-to-understand approach, but difficult to master.