Management is defined as the process of working with various resources in order to achieve organizational goals. So the management is handled by managers who are efficient and effective in performing their functions.
Functions of Management
The management process is divided into a number of activities that are effectively conducted by the managers. These activities or functions of management are as follows.
Planning is defined as the specification of certain goals along with the suitable actions that would be taken to achieve those goals. So planning activities include the following.
- Analyzing current situations
- Anticipation of the future
- Determination of the objectives
- Decisions about certain activities that should be carried out
- Selection of business and corporate strategies
- Determination of the required resources
Organization’s strategy is the result of the planning process.
The assembling and coordination of human, physical, financial, informational and other resources essential to achieve the goals is called organizing. Following activities are considered in the organizing function of management.
- Attracting people toward the company
- Specification of responsibilities of the job
- Splitting the job into a set of work units
- Marshall & allocate resources
- Maintenance of a specific environment that facilitates the group working with people and things.
Organizational Structure is the result of the organizing function of management.
The third function of management is the leading function in which people are motivated to become high performers. Under this function, employees are directed, motivated and communicated to individuals as well as group basis. Leading includes the following activities:
- People are contacted closely on a day to day basis
- Guidance and inspiration is provided to the employees to achieve the team or company’s goals
- Top members of the departments or divisions
High level of commitment and motivation is the result of leading a function.
The planning, organizing and leading functions do not guarantee success. Hence it is the controlling function of management that can ensure success. The control is defined as monitoring of the performances and comparing them. Basically against the established standards in order to bring any desired changes. Moreover, it is a general concept that the planned things do not happen accordingly. So there must be some differences that need to be ascertained and proper actions would be taken to improve those differences. All of this happens under the control function which ensures that the goals of the organizations are effectively accomplished. So activities included in the control function are as follows:
- Performance standards are established that can ensure the accomplishment of goals
- Identification of problems of performance and comparison is made against the established standards
- Proper actions are taken to solve the problems
- Control tools are applied that include information systems, budgeting, cost cutting etc.
Every efficient organization, either small or large, keeps focus on the actions of its employees. When any problem arises, the management immediately identifies it. Although takes immediate action to solve it and implement any required change. The efficiency and effectiveness are regulated in the organization as a result of the control function of management.
Manager and the Managerial Types
The person who performs the planning, organizing, leading and controlling functions of management within an organization is called a manager.
There are three Types of Managers which are as follows:
- Strategic Manager
- Tactical Manager
- Operational Manager
The senior executive members of the organizations are called the strategic managers who are responsible for the overall management of the organization. Strategic manager performs the following activities.
- The goals of the organization are established
- The plans of the organizations are made at the strategic level
- Also long term issues of the organization are focused
- The growth, survival & overall effectiveness of the organization is maintained by the strategic managers.
Tactical managers are relatively lower level managers than strategic managers are responsible for the translation of long term goals and plans into specified objectives. So tactical or middle level managers perform the following activities.
- Shorter period plans and objectives are prepared
- Resources are coordinated effectively
- The relationships with others workers and managers are developed effectively for the smooth functioning of the department or division of the organization
- They pass orders, wait for the other employee’s performance and then analyze the results.
Tactical managers are also called working managers. Since they perform the hard tasks, solve issues, get dirty at work and finally produce the value for the organization.
The lower level managers who are responsible for the supervision of the operations of the organization are called operational managers. They are also called supervisors or sales managers and communicate directly with the non-management employees of the organization. Furthermore operational managers are involved in performing the following duties.
- They deal with the employees that are performing the basic activities of the organizations. Therefore they serve as an important connection between management and non-management employees of the organization.
- The tactical plans that are made by the middle level managers are implemented by them
- They take care of the operational activities of the organization and ensure the smooth functioning at bottom level.
The Managerial Skills
There are certain skills that different managers should equip with for the smooth functioning of the organization. These skills are as follows:
- Technical Skills
- Interpersonal Skills
- Conceptual Skills
These skills include the proficiency and knowledge in a certain specialized area that can make a manager technically competent. However the ability to plan, organize, lead and control are included in this set of skills. Moreover, the lower level managers should be equipped with these skills as compared to other managers.
The potential to work effectively with the other people on an individual as well as group basis is covered in the interpersonal skills. Each level of manager must possess these skills which help them in understanding of the behaviors and attitudes and resultantly in communication with others effectively.
The capability of thinking and viewing about abstract things and understanding of conceptualization of complex situations is included in this set of skills. So the top manager needs these skills most to see the organization as a whole and also in different subunits. Actually that are working together and having different relationships with each other.
Hello everyone! This is Richard Daniels, a full-time passionate researcher & blogger. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Economics. He loves to write about economics, e-commerce, and business-related topics for students to assist them in their studies. That's the sole purpose of Business Study Notes.
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