The word” wholesaler” is derived from the word “Wholesale” that means sell good in large quantity or in bulk. According to S.E Thomas “A wholesaler is a trader who purchases goods in large quantities from manufacturer and resells them to retailers in small quantities”. You may also define Wholesaler as the The wholesaler as the one who buys goods in large quantities from manufacturer and sells them in small quantities with the object of earning profit. He therefore, is neither a manufacturer nor a retailer but acts as a link between the two parties.
Characteristic of Wholesaler
The main characteristics of wholesaler are:
- He buys and sells goods in large quantities.
- He deals only in a few types of products.
- He acts as a middleman between the producers and retailers.
- He usually makes cash purchases and sells goods on credit to the retailers.
- He does not sell good to the consumers.
- He operates in particular area determined by producers
Functions of a Wholesaler
The most important functions of a wholesaler in the marketing of goods are as under:-
The wholesaler buys good from different manufacturer producing the same streak of goods. He assembles them in his warehouse for the purpose of sale to the retailers.
A wholesaler stores the goods in his warehouse. He makes them available in appropriate and requisite quantities as and when they are required by retailers.
Grading and Packing
A wholesaler sorts out the goods according to their quality, size, shape, content etc and then packs them carefully to sell them to the retailers.
Wholesaler buys goods in bulk from the producers and transports them in his own godown. The wholesaler also provides the facility of transportation to the retailer shop, which is one of the important functions of wholesale trading.
This is an important function of wholesaler. A wholesaler usually buys goods on cash from the producers and sells on credit to the retailer. In this way, he provides financing facilities to trade transactions.
The wholesaler bears all the trade and financial risks of the business. Since he buys goods in bulk for making them available to retailer in small quantities, he takes all the risk involved in marketing of goods. He not only assumes the risk of loss arising from a unexpected fall in the prices of goods but also the risks of damage, deterioration in quality , spoilage etc in his warehouse.
One of the most important functions of wholesaler is that it provides important market information to retailer and manufacturer, which help the retailers about the demand of consumer and manufacturer, so that he produces the goods according to the changes in the tastes and fashions of the consumer.
Dispersing and selling
The wholesaler keeps the goods in warehouse. He sells them to the retailers who are often scattered over a large area. The retailers contact the wholesaler when goods are sold and this process continues over the years. The wholesaler thus helps in the dispersion process of marketing.
Importance of wholesalers
The importance of wholesaler in our marketing system can better be understood by investigating as to how they serve the
The services which are provided by wholesaler to the producers are as under:-
- Concentration on production
- Facilities large scale production
- Information about consumer behaviors
- Regulation of production
- Reliving producers from keeping stock
- Financial assistance
The services which are provided by wholesaler to the retailers are as under:-
- Relief from keeping huge stock
- Financial help
- Not affected by price fluctuations
- Provision of information
- Transportation facilities
- Trade discount
- Benefit of specialization
The services which are provided by wholesaler to the society are as under:-
- Availability of goods to the consumers
- Stability in price
- Low in price
- Knowledge about new products