Without proper planning and planning process you can’t get success in the Business Market. Planning process is a two way function used to set up goals and determine their achievement methods.
Goals: Goals are also called as targets. The goal is a target or result that is wished to achieve by any organization.
Plan: it is the way of achieving the goal or target.
An organization’s fundamental reason of existence is its Mission.
- The mission statement is the wide declaration of basic and unique idea and steps of operations that differentiate the one organization from others.
- Mission statement provides the service of various purposes. For managers, a mission statement can be a level for evaluation of success. For employees, it may be a common purpose, such as to raise organizational loyalty and to help promote a sense of community amongst members. For external groups, it helps for the provision of unique insight into the values and directions of an organization.
- The mission statement is a definition of an organization in terms of the significant organizational features.
Many of the questions are answered through using information and processes described earlier such as:
- Who the organization’s customers are?
- What is the competitive location of the organization?
- Which are the products and services of the organization?
- Which the fundamental technology of the organization?
- What are the basic philosophical priorities of the organization?
- What are the competitive advantages and strength of the organization?
- What image is desired by the organization towards public responsibilities?
- How is the organizational attitude towards the employees of organization?
Types of Plans
Description of the plans is in accordance with frequency of usage, specificity, time frame and breadth.
- Breadth: it is the competition of operational and strategic plans. Strategic Plans are those plans which establish the overall objectives and goals of an organization in terms of organizational environments. Operational Plans are the ones, who specify the details of achievement of those goals and objectives.
- Time Frame: It is the competition between time ranges of the plans. Short-term Plans are those, which cover the time range of one year or less than one year. While Long-term Plans are those, which are beyond the range of 3 years.
- Specificity: it’s directional against specific plans. Directional Plans are flexible, which follow general guidelines. And the Specific Plans are well defined and do not leave any room for explanation.
Nature and levels of Organizational Goals
Several benefits are acquired through the usage of goals, such as:
- To improve performance
- To increase expectations
- To facilitate the controlling functions for assessment of progress along with its correction
- To increase the courage by achieving the goals and targets.
There are three levels of objectives in an organization that form a chain of goals that is a lower level going through the high level following the middle levels, described as follow:
- Strategic goals; that are widely defined end results or targets settled by top management.
- Tactical goals; they are targets settled for specific units or departments by middle management staff.
- Operational Goals; these are end results set by lower managerial staff. They are settled to concentrate on specified, measurable outcomes required from the bottom levels.
Goals Facilitating Performance
There are five criteria to meet with, by the content of the goals.
- Challenging Goals: They usually go through high performance from groups or individuals.
- Attainable Goals: Demands in such goals should not be impossible, they are performance improving.
- Specific Goals: These goals are required for clearance when they are achieved.
- Time-limited Goals: They are meaningful ones.
- Relevant Goals: They facilitate employees to watch purpose of the goals and to create ways and methods of achieving them.
- Measurable Goals: At the time intervals, the performance can be accessed and measured are the Measurable Goals.
It is the attachment of individuals to achieve the goals. With commitment, performance impact decreases. Commitment can be encouraged by the managers in a number of methods. Those are:
- Supervisory Authority: The supervisory authority should serve for the motivation of employees to achieve targets and goals.
- Peer and Group Pressure: It may also serve up for the motivational activities.
- Expectations of Success: Managerial tuition and instructions can improve expectations of success.
- Incentives: Incentives should be provided to the employees during the settlement process of organizational goals, rewards should be given regarding the achievement of targets and goals.
- Participation: Participation of the employees at the time of goals settlement may provoke of goal commitment.
Four factors influence the work behavior of goal commitment and content.
- Goals offer a direction by controlling attention & action to correlated activities rather than other useless activities.
- Through mobilizing energy, efforts are boosted to which goals are concerned.
- Unless a goal is achieved, determination of the effort towards the achievement of goals should be maintained.
- If the targets and goals are definitely challenging, then goal settings go through planning.
Any of the specified jobs can manipulate the performance impact of the objectives by a number of other process mechanisms.
- Job Knowledge and Ability; influences work behavior and outlook of an individual to achieve the objectives and targets.
- Job performance is affected to a degree by complexity of tasks.
- Situation constraints also affect a lot such as tools & equipment, energy and material etc.
- Feedback about the progress or Knowledge of Results is useful for gauging the progress of individuals to attain the goals.
Five or more years of time period are involved in strategic plans, but the time frame is mostly infected by the stability of the organization.
Innovation is promoted in the organizations through the usage of the proper planning procedure.
- Initial way to motivate innovation can be the mission statement of the organization.
- The elements of a goal can provoke innovation.
- Actual plans are attained through plan components to achieve innovative outcome and results.
Difficulties may occur in the planning, but can be opposed by the organization in two ways.
01- Obstacles and difficulties in planning reduce the ability of an organization in the development of effective plans. Plans should be revised on a frequent basis with rapid environmental changes. Resistance to formal plans may apply by some managers having belief of planning is unnecessary. Poorly prepared managers can also be affected by the pressure of daily responsibilities. Special staff may also come for the dominance of the planning procedure.
02- For the reduction of difficulties and obstacles, organizations can make efforts, such as;
- Demonstration of top level managers in support of planning process.
- Planning Staff should support in helping top level managers rather than taking over the situation of the planning process.
- Contingency Planning: It is the development of alternative plans to use in the eventual environmental situations goes unpredictable. It is unfeasible to render original plans.