The motivation hygiene theory was introduced by Frederick Herzberg in which he argues that intrinsic factors are similar to job motivation and satisfaction, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with the job dissatisfaction. The main base of the Herzberg’s theory is that he believed as the job dissatisfaction is not the opposite of satisfaction. In simple words, omitting characters that cause job dissatisfaction, shall not work in order to make a job satisfying. Motivation Hygiene Theory is also known as Two-Factor Theory. It is because the main concentration of the theory is on two factors and Herzberg Frederic claims that there are only two the main categories of human needs.
Motivation Hygiene Theory Factors
Motivation Hygiene theory Factors are such alternates that are capable of eliminating dissatisfaction. The factors cover everything from intrinsic and extrinsic to those that are associated with job directly or indirectly, such as supervision, salary, company policy, working conditions and safety. According to Herzberg, Hygiene factors are the most important ones in order to keep employees far away from realizing dissatisfaction. The following are various Hygiene Factors, ordered from the most necessary to the least one.
- Work Environment
- Organization Policy
While on the other hand, Herzberg also introduced Motivators Factors that comprise much influence on job satisfaction, which eventually leads to motivation. The main purpose motivator factors, is to enhance the job satisfaction. Things like recognition, advancement, achievement, responsibility and intrinsic factors associated with the context of the job, are included under Motivators Factors. These factors may only help employees realize the job satisfaction and motivation. Further, the factors are in ascending order below to help individuals pick from the most important to the least one.
- Job Itself
- Development and Achievement
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation is yet the best-known theory of motivation since it was introduced. In this theory, he persuades that there are five primary needs of an employee and those are termed as a Hierarchal. Here, the term hierarchal means an order of needs, starting from the most necessary to the least. This theory is mostly known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The issue here is that what a person shall choose when having the need of two things at the same time, such as love and food. In certain cases, the Maslow’s theory seems simultaneous.
In 1969, a psychologist known as Clayton Alderfer published an article with the title “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Motivation” in which he redesigned or more correctly, introduced a new, improved and innovative model that put light on the Maslow’s Theory Of Needs, which seemed to be of a simultaneous nature. The theory given by Clayton Alderfer is known as ERG Theory, which is a modern form of Maslow’s theory. It can be also said that it is such theory in which Maslow’s Five Needs are transformed and merged into three primary levels. These levels are known as existence, relatedness & growth.
There are certain things that associate with the level existence. Different types of physiological and material needs such as water and food along with job-related factors like salary, working environment and fringe benefits, are included under the category of Existence as per ERG Theory.
The term relatedness pertain to the relationships of the employees with others like friends, families, social groups, job groups, or professional groups. According to ERG Theory, Relatedness is the second most influential factor of human needs.
The growth needs are one of the major needs that comprise an enormous impact. These needs put innovation and creativity forward with the aim to create a productive environment across the organization.
Aside from all aspects, these three levels can also be called as a categorized form of Maslow’s theory as every important need in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs comes under a specific form.