Maslow’s Needs Theory or Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is known as a motivational psychological theory given by a well reputed professional known as Abraham Maslow. The theory was first found in his book “A Theory of Human Motivation” in 1940-1950. Since its introduction, the theory has been constantly remaining the top niche regarding personal development, Human motivation, and management training. Today, Maslow’s ideas and theories are termed as the most relevant strategies concerning employers to arrange better working environment for employees in order to satisfy their unique organizational needs. Maslow put extraordinary efforts in order to develop management approaches that enable the analysis of basic human needs.
Maslow’s Needs Theory is the most famous theory of motivation, especially regarding psychology or human motivation. Experts term it as the bone theory of human needs that determines the classification of human needs, starting from the lowest to the highest. Further, the theory concludes that when a set of specific and necessary needs is satisfied, then such kinds of satisfied needs create motivation. The following is the brief overview of the hierarchy of needs according to the Maslow’s theory from the most basic to the highest ones.
Maslow’s Needs Theory Overview
1. Physiological Needs
These needs are the most necessary and important needs of every individual. Things like food, water, clothing and shelter come under the category of physiological needs. Maslow argued that unless these needs of humans are not satisfied, then satisfying other needs will also not encourage or motivate them.
2. Safety Needs
These needs refer to protection and other associated matters or simply the desire to remain secure, safe and protected from all of the existing horrible threats. The best alternates to resolve safety needs matters are retirement benefits and job continuity.
3. Belongings Needs
These types of needs require the coordination with others in the organization or any specific unit. Belonging needs can be satisfied by arranging gathering out of work through community relationships. In some cases, having a cup of tea together in the job area also satisfies belonging needs of the employees.
4. Esteem Needs:
There are two desires that can be satisfied by esteem needs easily, i.e. desire to possess a high moral positive self-image and to receive appreciation for the contributions. As per Maslow’s theory, once belongings needs of individual get satisfied, then the next things they want to have is to get appreciations and enough attachment with the belongings that may result on improved self-confidence and productivity.
5. Self-Actualization Needs
Maslow termed this need as to be at the highest level, because every individual like to use full potential and be in such a place where there is free-hand to use one’s entire capabilities and utilize one’s potential. In simple words, it is such a desire that tends to become exactly what an individual is capable of.
Further, according to Maslow, these five needs together give form to a hierarchy. Every individual is motivated to satisfy the first ever need which is physiological need. In case, the individual is unsatisfied, yet the primary purpose of the individual is to satisfy these needs. At the point when satisfaction of physiological needs is complete, the individual moves towards the satisfaction of safety needs. Through these steps the process of satisfying needs continues and eventually, the individual reaches at self-actualization needs. Modern researches and studies have arisen a few questions in front of Maslow’s needs theory. Studies ask whether the hierarchy of needs is applicable to every individual or not.
Analysis of Maslow’s Needs Theory
Key points of the Maslow’s needs theory, you need to remember as student and learner while analyzing it.
- Mostly, five types of need are not often available.
- There may be different hierarchy or order of needs for different employees. Simply, order of needs may not remain same for employees of all levels.
- There is not any single word about cultural difference in the theory, whereas culture difference matters a lot.
- When analyzing the theory on significant country basis, the cultural differences can be found easily. For example, there are different needs of individual across China that varies a lot from the Maslow’s needs theory.