Management is defined as the process of working with various resources in order to achieve organizational goals. The management is handled by managers who are efficient & effective in performing their functions.
Functions of Management
The management process is divided into a number of activities that are effectively conducted by the managers. These activities or functions of management are as follows.
Planning is defined as the specification of certain goals along with the suitable actions that would be taken to achieve those goals. Planning activities include the followings.
- Analyzing current situations
- Anticipation of the future
- Determination of the objectives
- Decisions about certain activities that should be carried out
- Selection of business and corporate strategies
- Determination of the required resources
Organization’s strategy is the result of the planning process.
The assembling and coordination of human, physical, financial, informational and other resources essential to achieve the goals is called organizing. Following activities are considered in the organizing function of management.
- Attracting people toward the company
- Specification of responsibilities of the job
- Splitting the job into a set of work units
- Marshall & allocate resources
- Maintenance of specific environment that facilitates the group working with people & thing.
Organizational Structure is the result of the organizing function of management.
The third function of management is the leading function in which people are motivated to become high performers. Under this function, employees are directed, motivated & communicated to individuals as well as group basis. Leading includes the following activities.
- People are contacted closely on a day to day basis
- Guidance and inspiration is provided to the employees to achieve the team & company’s goals
- Top members of the departments or divisions
High level of commitment & motivation is the result of leading function.
The planning, organizing & leading functions do not guarantee success. It the controlling function of management that can ensure the success. The control is defined as monitoring of the performances & comparing them against the established standards in order to bring any desired changes. It is a general concept that the planned things do not happen accordingly. There must be some differences that need to be ascertained and proper actions would be taken to improve those differences. All of this happens under the control function which ensures that the goals of the organizations are effectively accomplished. Activities included in the control function are as follows.
- Performance standards are established that can ensure the accomplishment of goals
- Identification of problems of performance & comparison is made against the established standards
- Proper actions are taken to solve the problems
- Control tools are applied that include information systems, budgeting, cost cutting etc.
Every efficient organization, either small or large, keeps focus on the actions of its employees. When any problem arises, the management immediately identifies it, take immediate action to solve it & implement any required change. The efficiency & effectiveness are regulated in the organization as a result of control function of management.
Manager and the Managerial Types
The person who performs the planning, organizing, leading & controlling functions of management within an organization is called a manager.
There are three Types of Managers which are as follow.
01- Strategic Manager
02- Tactical Manager
03- Operational Manager
- Strategic Manager:
The senior executive members of the organizations are called the strategic managers who are responsible for the overall management of the organization. Strategic manager performs the following activities.
01-The goals of the organization are established
02- The plans of the organizations are made at the strategic level
03- The long term issues of the organization are focused
04- The growth, survival & overall effectiveness of the organization is maintained by the strategic managers.
- Tactical Managers
Tactical managers are relatively lower level managers than strategic managers are responsible for the translation of long term goal s& plans into specified objectives. Tactical or middle level managers perform the following activities.
01- Shorter period plans and objectives are prepared
02- Resources are coordinated effectively
03- The relationships with others workers and managers are developed effectively for the smooth functioning of the department or division of the organization
04- They pass orders, wait for the other employee’s performance & then analyze the results.
Tactical managers are also called working managers because they perform the hard tasks, solve issues, get dirty at work and finally produce the value for the organization.
- Operational Managers
The lower level managers who are responsible for the supervision of the operations of the organization are called operational managers. They are also called supervisors or sales managers and are communicate directly with the non-management employees of the organization. Operational managers are involved in performing the following duties.
01- They deal with the employees that are performing the basic activities of the organizations & therefore they serve as an important connection between management & non-management employees of the organization
02- The tactical plans that are made by the middle level managers are implemented by them
03- They take care of the operational activities of the organization & ensure the smooth functioning at bottom level.
The Managerial Skills
There are certain skills that different managers should equip with for the smooth functioning of the organization. These skills are as follows.
01- Technical Skills
02- Interpersonal Skills
03- Conceptual Skills
- Technical Skills:
These skills include the proficiency & knowledge in a certain specialized area that can make a manager technically competent. The ability to plan, organize, lead & control are included in this set of skills and the lower level managers should be equipped with these skills as compared to other managers.
- Interpersonal Skills
The potential to work effectively with the other people on an individual as well as group basis is covered in the interpersonal skills. Each level of manager must possess these skills which help them in understanding of the behaviors & attitudes and resultantly in communication with others effectively.
- Conceptual Skills
The capability of thinking & viewing about abstract things & understanding of conceptualization of complex situations is included in this set of skills. The top manager needs these skills most to see the organization as a whole and also in different sub units that are working together and having different relationships with each other.