Authority is defined as the right to give orders, supervise the work of others & make certain decisions. It is linked with the managerial position to give orders & expect to follow the orders. In olden days, it was the basic element that made the organizations smoothly working. The authority was delegated from top to bottom of the organizational hierarchy. Every manager possessed some Types of Authority according to his designated position. It is related to a specific position a person holds and his personal characteristics are ignored against his authority, even if a position becomes vacant in the organization, but still it remains attached to that position.
Types of Authority in Management
- Line Authority
- Staff Authority
- Functional Authority
- Line Authority
The work of an employee is directed with the help of line authority. It takes the form of employer-employee relationship that moves from top to bottom. Certain decisions are made by the line manager without consulting any other person. In some cases line managers are differentiated from the staff managers by using the word “line”. The manager whose functions are linked directly with the achievement of organizational objectives is called line manager in simpler terms.
- Staff Authority
Staff authority is possessed by the staff managers. The objectives of the organization determine the line & staff nature of the functions of any manager. When the size of organization becomes larger & larger, the line mangers feel that they cannot complete their jobs by the existing skills, experience & knowledge which are not updated accordingly. Therefore staff authority is generated for the staff whose main purpose is to assist, support, advice & decrease the work burden of the line managers.
- Functional Authority
Functional authority that is also known as functional control, and is included in the area of line & staff aspects of HRM as it is the special authority that is exercised by the personnel manager in coordinating the personnel activities. The HR manager here performs his functions as right arm of the supreme executive.
Line Vs Staff Authority
Authority is linked with ordering someone, & making certain decisions to direct the work of others. The subordinate work is directed by the line manager. On the other hand staff managers assist line managers in achieving their basic objectives. HR managers fall in the category of staff managers.
Mostly line managers have responsibility to perform line functions, some staff functions & coordination functions.
The line manager specifies the qualifications required from the upcoming employees for certain positions in the organization. Then the HR manager is obliged to make arrangements for the sources of such required applicants and start the screening & interviewing process for final selection. The HR manager conducts certain tests of selection & finally recommends the best candidates before the line manager who then select the final applicant from a group of best applicants.
Line manager is boss of some subordinate employee & directs his work. The line manager is also responsible for accomplishment of the organizational objectives.
The line & staff aspects of HRM obliged the line manager to perform the following functions also.
- Improving Job Performance
- Gaining Creative Cooperation
- Interpreting procedures & Policies
- Controlling Costs of Labor
- Developing employee abilities
- Creation & maintenance of Departmental Morale
- The health & physical condition of employee is protected.
Staff manager has given the authority to support & assist the line managers in accomplishing the basic objectives. HR managers are normally categorized as staff manager.
Responsibilities of Staffing Manager
The main responsibility of staff manager is to assist the line manager for the achieving the basic goals. Staff managers work as a partner with the line manager to perform the overall functions effectively. Following are the responsibilities of HR manager as a staff manager.
- Assistance in hiring
- Reward Provision
- Promotion & Firing O f Employees
- Administration of certain Benefit Programs
Human Resource Manager
Human resource manager is the person who works as assistant & supporter with the other managers in the matters related to human resource of the organization. Normally HR manager serves high portion of employees. The main function of the HR manager is that it helps the other managers to deal the human resource effectively so that the organizational objectives should be accomplished. Line managers & HR managers has shared responsibility of effectively handling the matters of human resource in the organization.
As the HR is recognized as legitimate business unit, this makes the nature of HR as strategic & has direct responsibility in the accomplishment of organizational goals. So the HR managers should clarify the work structure of the organization & be capable to identify the abilities & skills of the workforce currently as well as in future. The involvement of human resource management at the strategic level of the organization is essential because it can ensure that the human capital of the organization can be work in accordance with the mission of the organization. The HR manager is closer with the employees of the organizations & he can effectively direct & motivate the potentials of the employees towards the right track of achievement of the goals of the organization. In the near future, the human resource management becomes more strategic than it is today.