Aside from Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, there are so many other theories of needs that determine certain specific needs of an individual, which may offer a satisfaction associated with the work motivation. Probably, when a need of an individual is satisfied, then another rise, soon it becomes a cycle and makes the individual to get motivated for the work in order to achieve such satisfaction. The management has always been a critical sector of the organization and viewing employee motivation is really a tough job, but the innovative theories made it very easy to analyze and explore for significant solutions to raise the employee motivation. McGregors theory is also from are one of those theories that comprise much influence on both the management and the employee. Further, details of two distinct theories, i.e. Theory X and Theory Y, given by McGregor, are explained below with the main assumptions of each theory.
McGregors Theory X and Y
In the 1960’s, Douglas Murray McGregor, a famous MIT professor of management wrote a book named “The Human Side of Enterprise” in which he analyzed the various behaviors of professionals at work. There are two theories, i.e. (Theory X and Theory Y), introduced in the book and are known for management and human motivation. The theories concentrate on two various models of potential motivation that is implemented by the managers across human resources management, organizational communication, organizational development and organizational behavior.
Theory X pertains and offers importance to strict supervision, additional rewards and external penalties in order to keep individual’s concentration at work. As per assumption of McGregors theory X, the employees really dislike the work, so they are forced to do it. Theory Y highlights the work satisfaction of employees and gives authority to the employees to creatively approach the tasks. At some point, the theory Y shows the passion and interest of employees at work. Both theories cover distinct roles and assumptions that are defined below.
Theory X Assumptions
- Individuals should be threatened and controlled strictly with the aim to keep them work hard and smart, as they dislike the work.
- The human dislikes responsibilities, prefers to be directed, remains unambiguous and wishes for security averagely.
- Today, above assumptions are applied across the most of the organizations and in the result two factors rise up constantly such as tough management consisting tight control and punishments and soft management that tend to offer comfort at work.
- Both factors are wrong as an individual seeks greater than just being rewarded financially, which is command motivation that can be termed as an opportunity for the individual to fulfill the career.
- In theory X, managers do not offer motivational command at work to their subordinates or staff, so probably the employees behave exactly according to the expectations.
Theory Y Assumptions
- The process of putting mental or physical efforts in the work seems as convenient as rest or play.
- Punishment and strict control are not only certain ways to motivate employees and keep them working effectively. Besides, the individual will work with own interests as the individual is focused on the goals of the organization.
- The outcome will be an efficient commitment to the organization only if the job is satisfying and meets a set of specific needs of the individual.
- The average professional learns, under certain situations, not only to approve the responsibility, but also to seek for it.
- A great number of employees can solve work problems by using creativity, ingenuity, and imagination.
- Capabilities of the average individual are partially utilized under the situation similar to modern industrial life.
As per various comments on the assumptions of both theories, Theory Y seems a little bit tough to be given a practical shape as it requires the employees to be satisfied and motivated enough. Above assumptions are the results of social science research and determine such ability that an individual possesses, which should pointed-out by the organization with the aim to become extra effective. According to McGregor, both theories have quite different roles, where McGregors Theory Y might seem hard to be put into action across large operations, yet it can be proved to be efficient and effective in the management sectors.