Effective and efficient working requires employees as well as managerial communication for the distribution of necessary and important information regarding work and tasks to get achieved within an organization. Managerial communication include the process of interpersonal communication, communication methods, hindrances in effective communication, communication networks and their flow along with existing problems and challenges with digital communication & information technology.
Nature of Managerial Communication
- Communication is the way to transfer and understand the idea, messages and other information through any media such as electronic media, telephonic media or computer-based information technology.
If there is not any transfer of ideas or information happened, then there is zero or no communication took place.
For an effective managerial communication, the meaning and understanding of the conveyed information or message must be acquired.
- Agreement is not required for the good communication to take place, only is the clear message understanding.
- Interpersonal Communication (the communication between two or more members) and Organizational Communication (total systems, methods and networks of organizational communication) jointly emphasis the Managerial Communications.
- Interpersonal processes and the communications are considered as important features of effective organizations.
- For the achievement of common goals, exchange of information or message or information is called as Communication.
- Two types of communication are used by managers in their work:
01- Verbal Communication: Words in written format are used in this type of communication.
- Letters, reports, manuals, memorandums and newsletters etc are included in verbal communication and it is termed to be as an effective way of communication.
- Disadvantages of verbal communication are; it takes more time to spread message along with the additional time of documentation of that message and it is very difficult to terminate such message.
02- Nonverbal Communication: Information that is not coded into words, but is behavioral and elemental mean of propagation is called as Nonverbal Communication. Words are not required to transfer information or message in such type of communication. Body language and verbal intonation are two basic modes of nonverbal communication.
- Gestures, postures, facial expressions and other signals through body motion are used to convey messages in the body language mode of nonverbal communication.
- Verbal intonation demonstrates to the spoken words or phrases for transmitting any information or message.
The analysis of communication can be done through its basic features.
01- Initiator of the message has been always the Sender.
02- The conversion meaning of the message into the symbols is known as Encoding process.
Gestures and words are considered as symbols.
Choice of symbols depends upon the sender,
- Encoding skills of the sender.
- Understanding the ability of receiver of the message
- Judgment of the symbols appropriation.
- Education and job status.
- State of emotions while receiving messages.
03- The outcome of the encoding process is called as the message. Verbal & non-verbal symbols developed to convey understanding to the receiver are included in a message.
- The method by which message is transferred is called as a medium. A few the best examples of the medium are formal report, telephone, meeting, online computers etc.
- Documentation, interpersonal dynamics, feedback mechanism, communication flow, intelligibility, cost, convenience and speed are the factors for choosing the best medium for the recommended communication.
04- The person who receives the messages or performs in the exchange of message is called as the receiver.
The process of translating the symbolic message received is called as decoding process.
- The sender and receiver, if has acquired the similar meaning of the message, then the communication is resulted as effective communication.
- The context of the message along with the medium is the consideration of the receiver.
Hindrance due to any cause, interrupting the general meaning of the message while exchanging is called as the noise.
The response of the interpreted message from the receiver is termed as a feedback mechanism by the receiver.
- During feedback mechanism, sender becomes the receiver of the message.
- It is considered to be the successful communication style, when feedback mechanism takes place in the sender and receiver of the message while exchange.
- When the process of communication does not permit or allow for the feedback mechanism, that communication is called as one-way communication.
- Two-way communication involves the feedback mechanism when exchange of the message takes place.
Barriers to Managerial Communication
Below are few different sorts of barriers to managerial communication that can be seen freely in the business organizations.
It is managing of message or information for making it more feasible in front of the receiver. In organizational levels the information is communicated up, is created as condensed, and is known to be condensing filtered communication recognizing the importance and interests of personal perceptions. The more the managers encourage the filtered communication in favor of managers, more will be organizational culture and rewards highlighted.
- Selective Perceptions
It involves the interpretation of hearing and watching of the individuals on interest, experience, and attitude & background basis.
They influence the interpretation of the message by the receiver. When the message receiver is upset, then it is better to avoid the response or reaction of the message delivered due change of perception of the message by the receiver in emotions.
- Overloaded Information
When the information exceeds the limit we work with, is called as overloaded information such as 600 unread messages in the email inbox. Overloaded information causes the negligence, passing over, avoiding and selecting out of the information. Or overtime is spent on the processing of the information, until the load released and it comes to the normal level, is also the form of ineffective communication.
When individuals think of they are attacked or threatened, they start engaging defensiveness, such as verbally attacking other, being overly judgmental, making ironic and objecting others.
Understanding of words is different towards different persons in accordance with factors involving their illustration such as age, culture and education, etc. these factors can deeply influence the meaning of words towards individuals. Special technology or technical language used for communication within groups or within an organization is Jargon.
- National Culture
If affects the method of choosing communication between managers.
Overcoming the Barriers
- Usage of Feedback mechanism.
- Simplification of language.
- Active listening. Hearing is a passive method while as listening is an active process. Active listening requires complete attention and attraction of the interpreter. By placing oneself in the situations of message sender can enhance the hearing of the message by the receiver
- Actions more loudly speak than words, watching is more efficient than that of only hearing.
Formal and Informal Communication
- Formal Communication
The communication that follows the command of chain by official manner within an organization is called as formal communication. It is required to fulfill someone’s job.
- Informal Communication
The communication that does not demonstrate the structural chain of command of an organization is called as informal communication. Social interactional needs of the employees are satisfied through informal communication. Organizational performance can be improved by informal communication by creation of alternative, faster and effective channels of communication.
Directional flow of Communication
- Downward Communication
Direction, information, coordination or evaluation of managers towards employees or individuals is termed as downward communication.
- Upward Communication
The flow towards managers from employees or individuals is referred to as upward communication. It can be done on behalf of information or awareness for managers about the feeling of employees for their work, coworker or general organizational issues. The culture of organizations influences the upward communication; it is encouraged in the sense of trust, respect or participative decision making. The strict and highly mechanistic organizational environment restricts or limits the upward communication.
- Lateral Communication
The communication between the employees of the same level within an organization is known to be lateral communication.
- Diagonal Communication
This flow of communication cuts all sites such as work areas and organizational level. It is facilitated through increased usage of emails. If the managers are not informed, then it can make troubles by employees in the organization.