Project planning is performed to support later achievement. The path from idea to achievement is smoothened through planning techniques. Project planning is a complex procedure for management of the project and planning serves as map of this procedure. Sufficient details should be mentioned in the map about the next performing activities along with simplicity that will not confuse workers in the mixing of less important things.
Project Planning Techniques
Similar basic elements are involved in almost all plans that result from project planning techniques. Their little difference is reflected in the methods of approaching the planning process. Planning is in fact a knotty process. It is repetitive process that generates good plans from least-good plans, and repetitive process of betterment looks to occur at the fits and beginning. Although the process may be specified formally, but it does not take place formal manner. The individuals and/or formalized planning teams or formal group meetings develop bits and pieces of plans. These developed bits & pieces of plans are then made better by other individuals, teams or groups and again the betterment process is repeated in an iterative manner.
Effective planning techniques must be employed in order to perform successful project management. The qualitative and quantitative tools for project planning should be pointed out. Effective utilization of resources must be made by the management from a systems point of view.
A systematic plan is needed that should consider the whole company as one large complex entity that is further split into little components. The effective utilization over many different kinds of projects is ensured by this.
So project objectives are required to be understood in the first step of total program scheduling. These objectives may be to
- Build expertise in provided area
- To improve current facility for later use
- To become competitive
- To maintain key personnel employed
The objectives are mostly not independent and all are interconnected, both explicitly and implicitly.
Once the objectives rare specified clearly, following four questions should be considered in this regard.
- The responsibility of achievement of these objectives and important-element work requirements will be assumed by which functional divisions?
- Are the needed organizational & corporate resources available?
- What are the important components of the work needed to fulfill the objectives and how are these components interconnected?
- What are the necessities of information flow for the project?
If the project is large and complex, careful planning & analysis should be achieved by both direct as well as indirect labor-charging organizational units. The designing of the organizational structure of project should be made to suits the project; Development of work plans and schedules should be made for the purpose of maximum allocation of resources; resource accounting & costing systems should be built; and management information & reporting system should be developed.
Effective total program cannot be achieved unless all the required information becomes available at the project initiation. These information requirements include
- The Statement of Work (SOW)
- The milestone schedule
- The Project specifications
- The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
The narrative description of the work to be achieved is indicated by the Statement of Work (SOW). It contains the goals of the project, a concise description of the work, the existing funding obstacles (if any) and the schedules & specifications. This schedule is rough schedule and contains such things as
- Start Date
- End Date
- Written Reports
- Major Milestones
Report writing is a particular field. It is essential that written reports must always be pointed out in case if functional input is needed, an individual with writing skills will be assigned by the functional manager. If line people do not write report then it will be clear that who should perform this task.
Project Planning of Execution
The structured order of events that guide to the desired set of goals is considered as project planning. Once the viability of the project has been developed and decision for further proceeding has been made then a detailed, written Plan of Execution (P of E) for project should be developed. Following this is included in this plan
- Who is to do what
- Major decision requirements
It is necessary that the project goals should be clearly connected to entire mission of the company. Senior management specifies a company’s
- Scope of project
- Intent in undertaking project
- Desired results of project
In this respect, the Plan of Execution
- Serves as a medium for communication with all stakeholders
- Serves as requirement for detailed scheduling of work
- Assists in documentation for creating estimates of cost
Project management plans are much comprehensive as compared to project plans or management plans. The comprehensive project planning is ensured and promoted through designing of simple & straightforward approach for preparation of plans. Mostly two separately prepared plans are combined to form project management plan: the project plan, which contains the work breakdown structure (WBS), schedules, logic and cost estimates, and the traditional management plan, which specifies operational management systems and approaches. Awareness is reflected by them regarding the system, the people and the detailed planning as important factors for the success of the project.