Span of management, centralization and decentralization all comes under the heading of authority. It is a range of subordinates who are given instructions to report directly to a particular top level manager. Span of Management is also termed as Span of Control. As per precautions, managers should neither have few subordinates nor too many subordinates. Many researches specify that there is not any entirely correct span of management for managers of any sort. Further, the span of management may be broader or narrower depending on the certain conditions of the managerial jobs. The following are a few features of the entire process of span of management.
Principle of Management
Principles of management are actually those set of rules and regulations on which probably the whole business organization layout depends upon. There are 14 principles which are probably followed by the most of business organizations. These 14 Principles of management is presented by the Henry Foyal in 1916. These principles of management are now days known as 14 principles of Henry Foyal in the business sectors.
With the aim to achieve greater efficiency and performance, employee’s motivation is really important to have and MBO (Management by Objectives) is a best approach to do so. This approach was proposed by Peter Drucker in the 1960’s, and by definition, process of management by objectives show a personnel management system, where the organization set, plan, monitor and achieve specific objectives with the mutual cooperation of both high level and low-level employees. For business passionate individuals, the concept of MBO may be clear, yet there is a need to understand the process of management by objectives.
After understanding the role of control systems in management and how various Control Systems influence the organizational operations, the next term is the control process that is completely associated with the control system as every control system operates through an ultimate and preplanned control process. When talking about controlling as a management function, definitely it is one of the most leading and necessary management functions of POLCA which is known for the most effective management. In simple words, the control system is a pre-designed mechanism with the aim to achieve organizational goals and meet certain challenges.
The process to regulate the organizational activities is known as Controlling. It is used to meet the actual performance of expected goals. Without a controlling system, the decision or the program will not be implemented properly as expected, though it’s planning is more perfect. Along with all other functions of management, controlling also has a significant importance. Mostly, the planning is the goal and objective setting, and ways to achieve the goals and objectives with the given resources.
Situational model of leadership is a factor that emphasizes the behavior of the leaders regarding different situations. Specifically, situational leadership theories or model is known to be a utilized, effective and the most recognized style of leadership. The beginning of this model was originally stated in the situational leadership theory proposed by Dr. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard in the early 1980’s or late 1970’s. This theory will also be discussed on this page along with multiple other theories that comprise influence on this factor. At some point, these theories are helping millions of individuals across the globe, to recognize their potential, effectiveness, and leadership nature and utilize available resources with the aim to create a role model for upcoming times in the organizational environment.
Leadership is the most critical and complex responsibility across any organization; it is because the leadership requires to be realistic, effective, positive, straightforward, creative, efficient, technically sound and more. When it comes to situational and behavioral models of leadership, then certain elements come to mind in order to give an acute overview on what it exactly is. It is absolute that the leadership is the only factor behind the rise or fall of any operation. The efficient the leadership is, the fruitful the outcome will be. According to the learning perspective, the first most factor of learning, leadership completely is to identify the behavior of leaders and how their decisions influence the operational processes or organizational goals.
Cognitive Theories of Motivation raise a different perspective of understanding the primary needs of an individual in order to keep the individual motivated and satisfied that will probably lead to greater efficiency and productivity. Certainly, the entire scenario of a job depends on how much an employee is motivated and satisfied with the aim to benefit the company in return. It is the fact that a job is need of both parties, i.e. the employee and the organization. At one point, the organization requires a professional to help achieve the target and put efforts for the growth of the organization. While on the other hand, the employee also seeks any source to satisfy the basic needs of the life with the aim to keep surviving with professional standards.
The motivation hygiene theory was introduced by Frederick Herzberg in which he argues that intrinsic factors are similar to job motivation and satisfaction, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with the job dissatisfaction. The main base of the Herzberg’s theory is that he believed as the job dissatisfaction is not the opposite of satisfaction. In simple words, omitting characters that cause job dissatisfaction, shall not work in order to make a job satisfying. Motivation Hygiene Theory is also known as Two-Factor Theory. It is because the main concentration of the theory is on two factors and Herzberg Frederic claims that there are only two the main categories of human needs.
Aside from Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, there are so many other theories of needs that determine certain specific needs of an individual, which may offer a satisfaction associated with the work motivation. Probably, when a need of an individual is satisfied, then another rise, soon it becomes a cycle and makes the individual to get motivated for the work in order to achieve such satisfaction. The management has always been a critical sector of the organization and viewing employee motivation is really a tough job, but the innovative theories made it very easy to analyze and explore for significant solutions to raise the employee motivation. McGregors theory is also from are one of those theories that comprise much influence on both the management and the employee. Further, details of two distinct theories, i.e. Theory X and Theory Y, given by McGregor, are explained below with the main assumptions of each theory.
System views of management associates with the Management division of the organization and it assumes that all of the organizations are systems, whereas all of the systems are sub-systems of larger systems. Here the the question is how a sub-system adjusts and meets the needs of the larger system. It clearly defines whether the sub-system is going to gain the prosperity or hit the ground. Before talking about the system views of management, lets see the some basic concepts of management and system.